Creating a work atmosphere in which everyone feels comfortable

Bringing people with diverse life experiences into journalism is one thing. Creating a work environment that ensures they stay is another. We know that many journalists who deviate from the white and educated middle-class norm have experienced or still experience discrimination at the workplace.

These are not isolated cases

A survey conducted among our members surprised even us and showed us how common these experiences are: Many journalists are denied journalistic objectivity because of their actual or perceived backgrounds, they have to put up with racist or derogatory remarks because of their appearance or their sexuality. Some are also the target of ridicule because of their name or accent. Some colleagues think they only got the job because of an alleged "migrant bonus”. And then there are those who believe that anyone without a “proper” German family history is neither good at German nor good at journalism.

I looked mainly for good and qualified people who also had an original, interesting biography or one with gaps in it. By picking such candidates, however, I noticed that if there is only one such person in the team, that person has to shoulder being the odd one out all alone. One could also say: the more diversity there is, the more beautiful diversity is.
Bernd Ulrich, Deputy Editor-in-Chief DIE ZEIT

Editorial offices are not discrimination-free spaces

Our survey also showed that when such things happen, often no one from the circle of colleagues intervenes on behalf of the victim, even superiors rarely do. The attitude is rather one of denial. "Discrimination? In our department? We don’t discriminate!” And so many of those affected by discrimination remain silent: Out of shame and feelings of guilt, or out of fear of no longer getting assignments if they fight back.

This makes it even more important to create awareness for the problem. Editorial offices are not discrimination-free spaces. Why should they be? Sexism, racism, homophobia, and transphobia exist everywhere in society. Nevertheless, it is possible and necessary to create an inclusive, appreciative working environment and to protect employees from discrimination. This, however, won’t happen on its own.

I was reduced to the status of a mother. This was clearly reflected to me. Colleagues would act as if they were doing me a favour by saying: Yes, take care of your child first. But that was not what I wanted. My child was well looked after by my husband and the childminder when I was not at home. We had organised things very well. (...) On the outside it appeared as if they really cared about me. But I always had the feeling that they no longer trusted me to be a capable journalist.
Editor of a regional newspaper cited in the ProQuote Medien Regionalzeitungsstudie, 2021.

Help with discrimination in editorial offices

from NdM & advd

Information and support for those affected is provided by the NdM in cooperation with the Anti-Discrimination Association Germany (advd) in the brochure "What you should know about discrimination in editorial offices" and online at:

Instructions for an inclusive editorial culture

Even if hardly any staff member deliberately discriminates against someone else on the team, racism, sexism, or discrimination based on disability, age, sexual identity or orientation occur all the time. It is important to recognize these discriminations as structural problems of our society. Only then can we address them in our day-to-day work. Step by step.

Create clarity

It’s the duty of heads of departments in editorial offices and publishing houses to make it clear that an inclusive working environment without discrimination is important to them. They should communicate this as emphatically as possible and as frequently as necessary: e.g., during job interviews, in editorial conferences and whenever discriminatory remarks are made in everyday work situations. This should be done both internally through visible notices in the building and externally, for example, through a diversity statement on the company’s website.

Treat all equally

Colleagues who have experienced discrimination should not have to demand that their wishes and needs be respected. They should be taken into consideration just as naturally as the rest of the workforce. This begins with a gender-neutral employment contract and extends to kosher food in the cafeteria and the installation of gender-neutral toilets and barrier-free editorial offices.

Offer (safe) spaces

Whether due to lack of time, shame, or fear of negative reactions, it is often difficult for people who have experienced discrimination to talk about their experiences. However, editorial staff who are not directly affected should also be given the opportunity to address uncertainties and exchange views on the topic. This can be done either with an anti-discrimination officer or in an internal group of colleagues who have personally experienced discrimination in the company. It is also important to make it clear that superiors can be contacted in the event of problems or uncertainties.

Establish a complaints office

Direct supervisors or colleagues are not always suitable as contact persons - especially if they themselves are the source of the discrimination. Instead of or in addition to anti-discrimination officers, an independent complaints office can be set up. A concept for this has been developed by the "Antidiskriminierungsstelle des Bundes" (Federal Anti-Discrimination Agency). A short explanatory film and a brochure are available from "ADA - Antidiskriminierung in der Arbeitswelt" (ADA - Anti-Discrimination in the Working World).


Respectful and sensitive interaction can be learned. Individual media such as the taz have already offered anti-bias trainings for their entire staff. Of course, this does not automatically solve all problems, but it is an important step towards sensitizing management.


It helps those affected to exchange ideas with people who have had similar experiences. Decision-makers should therefore support representatives of marginalized groups if they want to form formal or informal groups to discuss experiences. A working group such as "PoC in publishing house XY", can get people to talk about their experiences and help them to formulate their complaints in such a way that they can be passed on to management without anyone having to expose themselves personally. In many international companies, queer and other networks already exist and are welcomed by the companies.

Some publishing houses like Axel Springer have something like this, and at dpa there is a group of PoC that meets regularly. In 2018, "Buntfunk" was founded at Bayerischer Rundfunk with the aim of living and reflecting diversity in program content and in the workforce. The network is open to anyone who identifies as gay, lesbian, bi, trans*, inter, queer or straight ally, and "queer@wdr," a network of WDR employees*, even had its own float at the CSD in Cologne in 2019.

Becoming more diverse

Of course, exchange only works if there are other people in the editorial team with whom you can exchange ideas. Our members tell us repeatedly how exhausting it is, for example, to be the only black editor in an otherwise all white editorial team. Editors who are consciously diverse are the best protection against discrimination.


To create an editorial culture in which everyone feels comfortable, organizational development that anchors diversity at all levels is needed. Achieving this is a lengthy and time-consuming process. This handbook offers suggestions for a diversity strategy that takes the entire company into account. More information you can find here.

Which laws protect against discrimination?

The General Equal Treatment Act (AGG), also known as the Anti-Discrimination Act, has been in force in Germany since August 18, 2006. It regulates the protection against discrimination on racial grounds or on the grounds of "ethnic origin, gender, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual identity" in labour and civil law. That means in the workplace and in everyday life, for example when looking for accommodation, shopping or in the provision of services. It also makes it mandatory for all employers to set up a complaints office for the above-mentioned cases - but leaves it up to them to decide exactly how this is done.

How to be(come) an Ally. How to turn colleagues into allies

The way people treat each other in any editorial department is decided primarily at the top level. Having said that, the entire staff and each individual member of staff also bears responsibility for the climate in the workplace. Particularly employees who are not affected by discrimination should show solidarity and work to ensure that all colleagues can perform their work without fear.

Allow everyone to have their say

Over the decades, many companies have established a tone of behaviour that is dominated by men. This puts those who are less vocal and dominant at a disadvantage, such as most women, representatives of other marginalized groups, but also introverted colleagues. Therefore:

  • Be polite and sensitive
  • Avoid interrupting or drowning out others
  • Use your voice to let others have their say. For example, "Rüdiger, you've said a lot about the topic. Now I'd also be interested in what Hatice thinks about it."

Open your mouth

Do not remain silent when you observe racist, sexist or homophobic behaviour and statements, and take those affected by discrimination serious. This includes reacting to supposedly "harmless" or "funny" remarks. A simple "Hey, that's not okay" can often have a big impact.

Get involved as a mentor

Support a colleague who has a different background than you. For example, by becoming their mentor. You can do this in so many different ways:

  • Invite them for coffee and use the opportunity to find out what career goals you can help them achieve.
  • Point out any special achievements, strengths, and development potential of your mentee to superiors.
  • Use your network to help the person get a new job or assignments.

Use privilege

Colleagues who belong to a marginalized group often face resistance when they advocate for more diversity. Sometimes a white male can accomplish much more with the same demands. Therefore, use your privilege to advocate for the needs of your colleagues and for a good newsroom culture.


Refuse to attend events where speakers or panelists are not diverse. This could include conferences, lectures, panel discussions or workshops. Let the organizers know of your decision and recommend a colleague to make the event more diverse.

Advocate for diversity

Take action to make your workplace more diverse. There are many ways in which you can do this:

  • Disseminate job postings in circles where potential applicants can be reached. This can include Facebook groups, (post-)migrant associations and initiatives such as the Neue deutsche Medienmacher*innen.
  • Find out who offers anti-bias trainings in your region and offer to take care of organizing such a training for your department.
  • Invite stakeholders of marginalized groups to your editorial office - for example, to discuss the diversity of one of your editions or programs.

Learn more

These are just a few suggestions. There are countless other tips, ideas, and examples on the internet on how you can personally promote diversity and improve editorial culture. The article "How to become an ally in your newsroom" by Emma Carew Grovum offers more suggestions. The article is available on our website Neue deutsche Medienmacher*innen.

Guest contribution: Power abuse in journalism

The greatest story starts with you

by Eva Hoffmann und Pascale Müller

On 17 October 2021, the New York Times published an article on the abuse of power and the toxic leadership climate at BILD. In the article, several sources stated that they had had a sexual relationship with editor-in-chief Julian Reichelt which had resulted in better jobs for them. But they also reported being put under pressure and feeling overburdened. The article also mentions research on the allegations against Reichelt by journalist Juliane Löffler who, with her editorial team Ippen Investigativ, came under fire in her own publishing house before publication.  

Two days later, the then editor-in-chief of BILD had to quit his job. The scandal provided material for a huge media story, for a storm. Anyone standing by might come to the conclusion: the whole extent of sexism and abuse of power in German editorial offices is now out in the open. But the Julian Reichelt case is symptomatic of a much deeper problem.

Many things had to come together for the scandal to become public

During the investigations into the allegations against the former editor-in-chief of BILD, many things came together making it easy to publish the story. You had sources who were willing to describe their experiences. You had an extremely persistent reporter and her team, and you had an accused who was a media celebrity.

These factors helped overcome the immense resistance that every #metoo investigation has to face - intimidation of the alleged victims, legal attacks, perpetrator-victim role reversal. 

In most cases, investigating power abuse is not that easy. Some cases never become public. Not because they didn’t happen or because the abuse supposedly wasn’t that bad, but rather because investigations on abuse within the media industry are not free of the very power relations they are investigating.

A dragnet full of unpublished experiences

Every colleague who has done investigation into this topic has a dragnet full of unpublished material. Sometimes the sources prevent publication They are either too frightened or bound by legal restraints. But there are also cases where people in decision-making positions have no idea what discrimination or power abuse actually is, and why it should be of public relevance to report on such incidents. 

These accounts then end up in a reporter's notebook. And the reporter is almost always a woman. And there the reports lie, and, because we aren’t allowed publish them, we cannot make it clear to society that German journalism has a huge unspoken problem.

Reporting assaultive behaviour must become normal

Even if we can’t always report such issues to the “general public”, at least we should make talking about assaultive behaviour within our industry normal and not a topic to veer away from. This should make it possible to recognize, sanction and prevent such behaviour. 

What must change for this to happen? Those in positions of power in publishing houses, broadcasting stations and editorial offices must recognise that sexism, racism, queer hostility, and other forms of discrimination are not the problems of “the others”. To maliciously glee over a scandal when it affects the competition is no help to anyone.

BILD is not the only publication with a toxic leadership culture

In many editorial offices, there seems to be a lack of awareness of structural and active discrimination. At least, this is what we heard in the numerous interviews we held, the results of which were published in Medium Magazin in May 2022.

It is not only about the former editor-in-chief of BILD. Our research showed that a culture of toxic leadership that uses bullying and intimidation, sexism and other forms of discrimination is widespread in German media. In under a week, 189 journalists responded to a survey asking about experiences with leadership culture and described their experiences in German print, online, radio and television editorial offices. 

The problem is supervisors who grab the buttocks of younger female colleagues, editors who racially insult black female reporters and women who have given up on their dream of becoming journalists because of sexism and assault. Some of those who took the survey wrote things like: "I have become quieter; I no longer suggest certain topics. I no longer openly address problems. My self-confidence has suffered greatly. The job that was always my dream now feels more like a nightmare." Sadly, the problem exists in almost all editorial departments.

German journalism needs tutoring

Editorial offices, radio and TV stations and publishers urgently need to create structures that provide a safe working environment for all their employees. This can be done…

  • by setting up a complaints office that staff perceive as confidential and independent, and by communicating this to all employees. This office should be easily accessible and the name of the person or persons in charge should be clearly visible for example in restrooms, not hidden away somewhere in the company’s intranet.. 
  • by making sure that all new employees know from the very beginning who they can turn to if they experience sexism, racism or other forms of discrimination.
  • by setting up anonymous mailboxes and by seeing complaints as a valuable opportunity to make a difference. 

There are enough experts on critical whiteness or anti-sexism that can be hired to train editorial staff or those who work in broadcasting or publishing. The German media should recognise that it needs tutoring.

Everyone must ask: Am I doing enough myself?

And finally, everyone should ask themselves the question: Am I doing enough to make sure all colleagues in my editorial department feel comfortable and safe? In many of the situations described to us during the research for Medium Magazine, others were present. 

For example when the editor of a local newspaper allegedly grabbed the buttocks of a young female trainee during a birthday party. Or when a camera crew got off the lift in a broadcasting house when a female colleague got on, saying that they did not want to ride in a lift with a lesbian. 

When colleagues are harassed or insulted, we must not look the other way. Especially those of us in safe positions with less risk of consequences need to step in and protect those in less privileged positions.

It starts with you

As an industry, we need to acknowledge this structural problem and report on it differently. The goal shouldn’t only be to expose the next Julian Reichelt or to land the media’s next big scoop. 

Individualising the problem distracts from the real challenge: If you want to report adequately on structural discrimination, sometimes you must start with yourself. That would really be a uniquely big story.

Pascale Müller is a freelance investigative journalist. Hermain research is on labour exploitation and sexualised violence. Eva Hoffmann is a freelance journalist who writes about social inequality, sexism, and migration. Both are members of  Selbstlaut Kollektiv.

Interview: Antidiskriminierungsverband

“You learn that your own work is worth less"

Eva Maria Andrades and Daniel Bartel, directors of the German Anti-Discrimination Association (advd), talk about what discrimination is and the consequences it can have.

NdM: Studies from the U.S. and the U.K. have shown that journalists of colour in particular are strongly discriminated against in editorial departments. We don’t have figures in Germany yet. What are the consequences of regularly experiencing discrimination in the work context?

Daniel Bartel: It varies greatly. First, such experiences often trigger expectation stress. This means that those affected keep asking themselves, "What could happen?" Other possible consequences can be that those affected will avoid certain topics in the future, they’ll avoid discussions, or try to conform to the supposed (and problematic) "norm" in their editorial department. Power relations in the context of racism or sexism also come into play.

If your article or editorial contribution is rejected, you ask yourself: "Was the topic not interesting enough? Or is it because of my race or sex?"

Eva Maria Andrades: And such experiences influence a person’s self-esteem. One "learns" that one's own work is worth less or not equally good. At some point, you start to internalize this ...
Daniel Bartel: … ... and perhaps retreat completely. Especially in journalism, a profession with many individual fighters. That makes it more difficult to recognize such patterns.

"Discrimination is expressed in social power relations"

NdM: Many colleagues are also very uncertain as to when one can even speak of discrimination. How can we clarify this?

Daniel Bartel: Discrimination can be understood on three levels. First, in the context of the legal definition where it is unequal or worse treatment or a violation of a person’s dignity without any objective justification, based simply on a person’s membership to a particular group. Secondly, as personally experienced discrimination – for which there could be a justification, but the experience remains a hurtful reality all the same. And finally, discrimination is expressed in social power relations and is embedded in ideas of normality, for example, ideas about how an interviewed expert should look, or sound like to be perceived as credible or whose voice radio listeners would prefer to hear.

These three levels often overlap, but sometimes also act as a mutual corrective, for example when it becomes clear that laws do not or only insufficiently reflect certain experiences of discrimination and power relations and therefore need to be expanded. What comes to mind, for example, is class discrimination or discrimination based on body weight.

Eva Maria Andrades: The advd's understanding of discrimination goes beyond the legal one - although we do of course take the legal definition into account in our counselling and use it in our arguments.

How bosses can protect their employees from hate speech

It is not only stereotypes and power relations within the editorial team that make life difficult for journalists from marginalized groups. Women, people with disabilities or migrants and their descendants are also particularly exposed to hostilities and threats from internet users and readers. Of course, all editors can become the target of hate speech on the Internet.

However, studies and countless reports from those affected show that attacks are primarily directed at those who are already socially disadvantaged. Those who head media institutions and those in leading positions are particularly called upon to protect their employees from cyber mobbing and hate speech as best they can.

There is no one uniform definition of what exactly constitutes hate speech. Editorial teams can and should therefore define for themselves what they consider as hate speech.

Important: The decision on this does not lie with the haters ("I am not a sexist, Nazi, racist, but ..."), but above all with those affected. We suggest this definition, which can serve as a basis for discussion in editorial offices.

What is hate speech?

We define hate speech as verbal acts against individuals or groups of people with the aim of devaluing or threatening them because they belong to a disadvantaged group. The person or group does not have to be part of a minority (women are not a minority, for example); conversely, minority groups are not automatically disadvantaged. Examples of hate speech are:

  • sexism
  • anti-Muslim, anti-black, anti-Asian, ....) racism
  • anti-Semitism
  • anti-Romaism (racism against Sinti*ze and Rom*nja
  • classism (discrimination based on social class)
  • ableism (discrimination against people with disabilities)
  • queerphobia

Tips & Tools: Helpdesk and guide to dealing with hate speech

We interviewed experts, journalists, social media managers, activists and politicians affected by hate speech and worked out strategies for dealing with hate speech. We discussed our results with academics and practitioners to derive recommendations.

We put our results in a guide on how to deal with online hate, created an Online-Helpdesk with many practical tips, the most effective strategies, legal classifications, and concrete case examples as well as a Notfall-Ratgeber for journalists in acute threat situations.

Protecting Journalists from Threats

People who live in constant fear of being insulted or personally attacked are more likely to keep their comments to themselves. Journalists whose job it is to report on topics such as migration, populism or sexism are particularly at risk of becoming the target of hostilities and of having their reporting consciously or unconsciously restricted. Internet hate speech and all forms of cyber bullying therefore not only endanger individuals, but they are also a threat to journalism itself.

For this reason, journalist Jana Pareigis (ZDF), together with the DJU, Verdi, Reporters Without Borders, the Counseling Center for Victims of Right-Wing, Racist and Anti-Semitic Violence (VBRG) and the Neue deutsche Medienmacher*innen have developed a catalogue of measures that the media can use to protect their employees in threatening situations.

  • Designate a contact person in the company, whom both freelancers and full-time employees can turn to if they have become the target of right-wing, racist, anti-Semitic, misogynist or otherwise politically motivated threats, attacks, doxxing campaigns and acts of violence because of their reporting.

    The contact person assumes the function of an intermediary: He/she informs the colleague in question about all legal, psychological and psychosocial as well as financial support options. She/he also assesses the nature of the threat and, if necessary, contacts the police, the public prosecutor's office, or counselling centres. The contact person accompanies and supports the victims until their safety is restored. All necessary steps are taken, such as legal assistance, personal protection, and psychological support.
  • The following services should be made available to affected media professionals if they are threatened or become victims of hate messages due to their journalistic work:
    • External psychological support
    • Legal support and representation
    • Financial support covering costs for personal protection
    • Financial support and assistance if a journalist has to move because their private address was made public
    • Covering taxi bills of a threatened employee if taking public transportation poses a risk
    • Legal and psychological support for the families of those affected
    • Regular training sessions and workshops on dealing with hate messages and threats
  • Legal support from the in-house legal department to block access to information on the private addresses of freelance and salaried journalists, photographers and authors in accordance with §51 of the German Federal Data Protection Act (BMG).
  • Appointment of a central in-house contact person, to whom freelancers and permanent employees can send the hate mail they receive (anti-toxic mail address). The hate mails received there are regularly checked by the in-house legal department for their relevance under criminal law and, if necessary, reported to the criminal prosecution authorities. The in-house IT department archives these mails and, if necessary, creates statistical profiles of the senders, etc. This reduces the burden on the victims in two ways. First, they do not have to finish reading the threats or save them on their personal accounts. In addition, they have the support of the legal department and the assurance that the hateful comments or threats will be legally examined.
  • In the event of filming assignments or other operations that could pose a threat to the media representatives, the editorial company will provide security personnel.
  • The social media profiles and accounts of the haters will be promptly blocked or deactivated und Nutzer*innen in den sozialen Medien.
  • Social Media Watch prior to events that could be potentially threatening. Screening for threats, calls to violence on social media and, if necessary, security and admission controls.
  • Media companies wishing to join and commit to these measures are welcome to contact us at Neuen deutschen Medienmacher*innen or, from 2022, directly on the joint website of the organizations participating in the Schutzkodex.
Tipps und Tools für a more respectful workplace

NdM emergency kit for acutely threatened journalists

Anonymous hate comments on the internet and dehumanizing slogans can quickly develop into a real threat. Media professionals who belong to discriminated groups, but also all other journalists who work on topics such as right-wing extremism, who report on demonstrations, etc. can feel and be seriously threatened.

The brochure „Leitfaden für bedrohte Journalist*innen in Deutschland“(Guide for Threatened Journalists in Germany) provides an overview of what to do in an emergency and what steps to take in the case of a concrete threat. Media companies who want to know how they can support acutely threatened journalists can find tips here.

Helpdesk against hate

Together with academics and practitioners, the New German Media Makers have analyzed and worked through the best possible strategies against hate speech for journalists, editorial teams and community management. The result is an Online-Helpdesk with many practical tips, the most effective strategies, legal classifications and concrete case studies for dealing with hate speech.

Help with discrimination in editorial offices

from NdM & advd

Information and support for those affected is provided by the NdM in cooperation with the Anti-Discrimination Association Germany (advd) in the brochure "What you should know about discrimination in editorial offices" and online at:



Our NO HATE SPEECH. project offers free training for media professionals: If we don't have the capacity to offer a workshop, we can fall back on our train-the-trainer pool: This pool is made up of journalists who have been trained by us and whom you can contact locally. Further information is available here.

Hateaid Helps

Only one to four percent of all those affected by hate speech report the perpetrators. And even fewer take the matter to court. The reasons: The procedures take a long time, are time-consuming and, above all, expensive. HateAid wants to change that. HateAid supports those who have been attacked by offering counselling sessions. They help victims to file criminal charges and gather evidence. HateAid also finances lawyers and assumes the risk of all legal costs. In return, the victim donates his or her compensation fee to the organization and thus helps them support other victims.


The Dart Center for Journalism and Trauma is a project of the Columbia School of Journalism. It promotes greater understanding of the effects of trauma among media professionals and addresses the issue of hate on the web while offering coping strategies to help journalists to stay resilient in the face of persistent pressures. The Center's website offers a wealth of information and tips.

Guest Contribution: Ageism

Ageism: Diversity is everything – except being old

by Silke Burmester

I must have been in my late 40s when I requested that my age no longer be mentioned in the author's line. The question “why not?” was always accompanied by astonishment. But my answer was accepted with complete understanding. I explained to the editors that if my age were known, I would no longer be commissioned for certain articles. Many magazines want to be hip. Those who buy them want to feel modern and with it. They want to see a hip world presented by hip writers.

Approaching 50 is simply a no go. A look at a photo dated June 2021 showing the new management team of "Stern" says it all. There are 27 people in the picture. Women over 50? Two at the most. Journalists who have worked for decades for so-called women's magazines find that they can no longer get articles published on topics that interest them now. The editors want other stories. Positive ones, offering advice and help.

Hardly anyone over 50 climbs the career ladder

Promotions and career advancement opportunities usually take place around age 40. Hardly anyone gets promoted after the age of 50, regardless of their gender. But one can still assume that more men get promoted at that age than women, even if there are no figures to support this yet. Because why would the mechanisms that exclude women no longer apply after 50? Especially since women who act "visibly" are hit particularly hard.

In 2012, WDR took several women who were around 50 years old off the air in one fell swoop. This was around the same time that Thomas Roth became the presenter of the Tagesthemen news. He was almost 62 years old at the time.

In the summer of 2021, 62-year-old WDR director Tom Buhrow also made similar dismissals, saying that the station wanted to become more "diverse". Diversity - the new magic word means everything from LGBTIQ*, black, blue, striped, one armed, three armed, but not "old".

In October 2020, I launched the online platform with a group of other women. Our target group are women aged 47 and above, and the idea is to give ourselves and our topics space.

As great as it is that editorial offices have become aware of and are willing to embrace diversity, it is unfortunate that the will to represent true diversity ends where "age" is involved. Female journalists are doubly affected by ageism because first, when we are older, we hardly have opportunities for promotion or career advancement. And on top of that no one wants to publish the great stories we could tell about and for older women. .

Silke Burmester has worked as a journalist, columnist, book author and lecturer for over 25 years. Now she moderates panels and events. She is also the founder of, „Leuchten für Fortgeschrittene“ an online platform that promotes the visibility of women* over 47.